Clioquinol is a member of the hydroxyquinoline family which inhibits certain enzymes related to DNA replication. Clioquinol is a metal chelating ligand which displays protective effects in various neurodegenerative states as well as being a component in antifungal and antiprotozoal agents. It has been shown to modulate amyloid beta-peptide accumulation via upregulation of metalloprotease activity. When co-administered with vitamin B12, Clioquinol rescues lead-induced impairments of synaptic plasticity in an animal models. In recent animal studies Clioquinol has shown to reverse the progression of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Clioquinol has been observed to induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by generating free zinc in lysosomes.